Some manufacturers are vertically integrated, producing the textiles from which they make garments, or even operating retail outlets too. Finally, the sewn parts of the garment, such as sleeves or pant legs, are assembled together to give the final form to the clothing. Physical properties are being tested for bulk fabric. The production managers help the planning department during planning or allocating a particular line for the style by telling them the capacity of the line and also telling them about the skills of the operators. Then block are cut out from this spread for specific number of pieces.
The minimum quantity that a vendor requires in order to contract their goods or services. A paper or computer model for each piece of a product. Used as a guide to construct a product. A full size working model of a new product or new version of an existing product used as a basis for later production stages. The specific base construction of a fabric: A machine or hand stitch where the hem is almost invisible from the face side of the fabric.
A series of directions describing which care practices should used to care for a product. Refers to fabrics knit on a circular knitting machine..
A circular knitting machine may be used to produce seamless garments like hosiery. High Point Shoulder-imaginary horizontal line across the highest shoulder point of a garment- used to find drop and placement. An extra fabric enclosed between a main fabric and lining providing additional weight or warmth. Used a quick reference of product for buyers. Protective band of tape or fabric sewn at the inside of a neck seam for a more comfortable feel to the garment.
A list prepared by the shipper that lists the quantity and kinds of items being shipped. A representation of a product line together. Stretchy knit fabric that appears the same on both sides. More stetch than a jersey knit. Pre-production samples that are used to check the accuracy of all sizes to be produced in an order. Stitching that shows on the face side of fabric either for structural or aesthetic reasons.
Stitching that appears on the underside of a garment that causes the top fabric to roll slightly over and hide the seam edge. Over the duration of each course, expect a new lesson in your inbox each day. As an emerging designer, finding the right manufacturer to fit your brand is one of the…. Digital manufacturing is automation on a much larger scale. In case of imported accessories, the production lead-time is weeks and the transit lead time is days for air and days for sea.
Inspection is done on the following grounds: As soon as the accessory department comes to know about the date on which they will receive that particular material they make a note of it in their database that they will be receiving that material and this is termed as PRE GRN. After it is confirmed that the received materials is according to the documents then they carry out a quality inspection and this inspection is carried out irrespective to the type of the buyer.
The company carries this inspection as per AQL standard. On receiving the orders, from the merchants they start to decide the date for having the PP Pre-Production meeting with the departments which are directly involved and they are, planning, production and the finishing departments.
The planning department takes the approval or sits and conducts a meeting with other departments to come to end up giving a proper planning and scheduling dates for the particular style this will take about 10 — 15 days from the merchandiser approves the order that has to be followed. Firstly, they take inputs from IED Industrial Engineering Department on production related information based on the garment details which includes, SAM value of the garment, number of components in the garment, type of seams, length of stitches involved in the garment, types of machines required to finish the garment, any specialized machine is required or not for the manufacturing of the garment, difficulties involved during stitching of the garment if it is of a complicated style and structure, the skill level required for the various operations of the garment and the ratio of the operators with respect to their skill levels required for manufacturing the particular garment for all the operations all together.
Then they finally come to a conclusion about planning entire style. Secondly, they confirm the details given to the concerned units in other words they confirm the PCD, Order quantity, sample and other similar information from them in consultation with the GM and FM.
Thirdly, they confirm this consultation if it is the final decision and then they also get a confirmation from the embroidery, washing and finishing departments if the slots for the dates on which they have planned for those particular styles is available and then after confirmation they fix the particular dates on which the style has to reach the embroidery, washing and finishing departments.
This commitment sheet includes the details regarding the batch that has taken up the job of producing the particular style, the quantity which they are committed to produce for a day and the labor details which involves the number of operators and to which operation they are assigned to and their skill level will also be mentioned.
This sheet will have to be updated once in an hour to know the hourly production of the batch. Then the planning department will follow up with the factory till the order is completely being executed and the entire order quantity is being shipped.
The laboratory generally keeps in touch with three major departments. The departments and their main functions and applications with the laboratory are as follows.
Fabric sourcing department The fabric sourcing department sends the samples of fabrics that have to be ordered later may be for sampling, pilot or for the bulk production. The sourcing department as soon as it receives the fabric swatches from the supplier they will select the fabrics which they require for the particular style and then order for a few meters and then after they receive the small amount then they sent it to the laboratory along with the tests that are to be carried out for that particular fabric sample.
The list of tests that the sourcing department generally asks for are as follows. The lists of tests that are generally done for accessories are as follows: Button breaking test Colored laces and tapes are tested for color fastness Color fastness test for elastics Lining fabrics for their dimensional stability Corrugated box Merchandising Department: The merchandising department keeps in touch with the laboratory for the general tests which has to be carried out on the garment samples which are termed as lab dips.
The garment sample is sent to the laboratory with a list of tests that has to be carried out as per the buyer specifications. After the tests are been carried out and the results are received then the garment fabric samples are sent to the external laboratory for tests to be carried out if the buyer specifies. If the results are required very soon and the tests does not involve any kind of long process then that particular sample is taken first and then tested and sent back within a day, suppose the sample received involves more number of tests and tests which involve long processing then such tests takes time about 2 — 3 days and then after receiving the proper output they note down the readings in the record and then send it the concerned department form where they received.
Unacceptable quality of products often results ill-maintained machines. Breakdown and preventive maintenance is primarily aimed toward reduced downtime and increased life respectively. Proper machine maintenance is also necessary to avoid casualties at the floor. The function of preventive maintenance includes: CAD can be done either manually or with the use of some software or in computerized way.
Then the work of the CAD room begins. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish. Marketing and merchandising department is a team of merchandisers and marketers work together under a profit controls head. Merchandisers communicate with the buyer for their requirements. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled. Product merchandising is done in the units. This includes all the responsibilities from sourcing to finishing such that first sample onwards, the product merchandising work starts and ends at shipment.
Steps involved in the Merchandising Process - Before the order is placed, the buyer sends a flat sketch or a sample garment. After order is confirmed, the process flow is as follows - Consumption of fabric is worked out by the pattern maker and the CAD department. This is the opening license for production. The comments are sent to the supplier or the bulk quantity is called for if there are no defects.
GPT report is necessary to seal the PP sample. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a given amount of styles, from the spreads. It comes in form of a package file that carries the following details: For this, first of all a thin brown paper sheet is spread on the cutting table using an adhesive tape to prevent the bottom plies from shifting during cutting.
Then the actual spreading process begins with the laying of first fabric layer on this brown sheet and subsequently the other plies are laid. The spreading of this lay is done either manually or automatically by the spreading machine. While manual spreading is time consuming, the use of traveling machine gives faster and more accurate results. Whereas, lay height depends on the thickness of the fabric and the capacity of the cutting machine.
The machine is moved through the lay following the pattern lines of the marker and the reciprocating blade cut the pieces of the fabric progressively. Notches are also added. For smaller components like collars, ribs etc. It is a non-portable cutting device, which cuts the fabric as it is passed across the blade.
The garments are kept aside as and when they are cut. Block cutting Jacquard, stripes and checks cannot be spread with the spreading machine due to requirements of matching so they are spread manually.
Often structures like jacquard and checks are spread and cut in single number for accuracy. The plies are spread one at a time, matching the stripes with those in the previous plies.
Then block are cut out from this spread for specific number of pieces. The size of the block is dictated by the CAD room itself, which sends a mini marker for the cutting of the blocks from the lay and placement of the patterns on the blocks.
Accordingly the cut blocks are manually marked on the top. The plies in the block are aligned to the match the stripes and a rough cutting of the fabric following the markings of the pattern is done. The cut shapes are again checked for alignment and the stripes superimposed. Cutting of striped fabric is a much more time consuming process. The wastage involved is also more due to cutting in two stages. Sorting and Ticketing The pieces cut out from the lay are now sorted out size wise.
All the components of one garment size are bought together. It is very important to take care that pieces cut from two different bolts bundles of fabric are not mixed up. This is because within a lot there are bolt-to-bolt variations in the color shade. The sorted pieces are now ticketed. Ticketing is the process of marking the cut components for shade matching precision, and sequence identification.
The worker secures one end of the stack and puts on the ticket using ticket gun. The ticket contains the size, bundle number and piece number and serves as important means to track the parts of the garment in the assembly line from start to end. Cut panel checking The ticketed panels are now sent to the checking area for inspection of every individual piece for any objectionable faults. Panels having faults like wrong grain line, inappropriate size, incorrect shape and any fabric defects like holes, cut, shade variations etc.
A cutting component checking report is filled for the total quality cut, checked and approved. The rejected pieces are sent back and an equal number of fresh panels are separately cut, replaced in the set and ticketed with the same number as the rejected ones. Other mend able faults are marked with an alteration sticker and passed on.
This is spotted out during garment finishing or washing. Bundling The checked components of one style and in one size are now clubbed and bundled using ties.
The size of bundle depends upon the requirement of the production plant. Each bundle will contain pieces of the same style and same size only. The cutting department issues the amount required by the production department when asked for. Embroidery The cutting department is responsible for sending the cut components of a style for embroidery as stated in the production process.
Blocks of panels are sent for embroidery, which are re-cut after receiving back. To avoid mixing of the patterns the panels of the same size are stitched together temporarily before dispatch for the embroidery. Fusing Fusing is also carried out in the cutting room itself.
The parts to be fused are separated from the bundle. The fusing material is cut according to the size of the components to be fused. The components along with the cut fusing material are kept between two papers sheets and the pack is passed through the fusing machine. By means of the temperature and the pressure fusing takes place at a particular speed and for a particular time. The pack comes out at the other end on the conveyors and the pieces are removed and re bundled.
After receiving all these details they send a request for the cut parts from the cutting and sorting section and the request is sent to the accessory stores for all the accessories that are required for the particular style then they start the production for the new style.
Before starting the proper production the production floor does a process of batch- setting for the floor which is training the operators for the new style that has to be produced bulk, this teaching session will go on for about 2 — 3 days maximum.
After this batch setting process the production for the next day starts with a smaller commitment and then the production gradually increase. Once the cut parts is received from the cutting and sorting section then the parts are prepared and assembled according to the line that is planned.
After the assembling of the parts is done then there will be a line checking, where the shade matching and the measurements are checked and sent. The garment making is divided into three different stages and at these three stages the checking is done.
The process of designing and manufacturing apparel is incredibly complex and detail oriented, and launching a fashion line requires a great deal of planning and preparation from the start. Each step along the way has its own set of considerations and requirements that should be addressed and completed before moving on to the next phase. Based on present apparel industry, garment manufacturing processes are categorized as. Pre-Production Processes - Pre-production process includes sampling, sourcing of raw materials, Approvals, PP meeting etc. Read this for further reading on pre-production processes. Production processes - Production processes are cutting, sewing etc. Apparel manufacturing process 1. Khushboo Priyambada 2. Garment manufacturing is an assembly- oriented activity with a great range of raw materials, product types, production volumes, supply chains, retail markets and associated technologies. Companies range from small family business to multinationals. The clothing industry is labour intensive industry.